They look precise, but aren’t.
The Wikipedia article called “Lead-crime hypothesis” is linked to below.
Lead-crime hypothesis - Wikipedia
The lead-crime hypothesis is the association between elevated blood lead levels in children and increased rates of…
It contains this statement:
A 2011 study by the California State University found that “Ridding the world of leaded petrol, with the United Nations leading the effort in developing countries, has resulted in $2.4 trillion in annual benefits, 1.2 million fewer premature deaths, higher overall intelligence and 58 million fewer crimes”, according to the United Nations News Centre.
The reference at the end is to this article:
Phase-out of leaded petrol brings huge health and cost benefits - UN-backed study
Ridding the world of leaded petrol, with the United Nations leading the effort in developing countries, has resulted in…
What 2011 study by California State University? There’s no reference in either the Wikipedia article or the UN article.
By the way (I can’t ignore this) it is not an imprecise statement, but a completely false statement to to claim that the world has been rid of leaded petrol. In fact it is still used for petrol powered airplanes all over the world, and is even used in cars in several countries.
“2.4 trillion dollars in annual benefits” doesn’t mean anything without knowing how this was calculated, and it doesn’t say that anywhere in either the Wikipedia article, nor in the UN article.
“1.2 million fewer premature deaths” is even more absurd. You can get any number of hypothesized premature deaths if the deaths are hypothesized to be premature by a short enough time. Is a theoretically early by one second death counted as a premature death? Without a definition or number for “premature” it is meaningless. “I guess about a million people would have died at least one second earlier than they otherwise would have done” doesn’t sound as good, but it can be converted to “1.2 million fewer premature deaths”, which sounds much better. It sounds much more precise.
“higher overall intelligence”. How much higher? According to who? How was this calculated?
“58 million fewer crimes”. Ridiculously precise. Also, is that per year? We aren’t told. Scientists don’t even know for sure whether there are fewer crimes as a result of leaded petrol being used less than in the past. It’s just a theory. But it sounds way better than “I guess there have been a hundred million fewer crimes. What counts as a crime? Speeding? Jaywalking? Littering? Criticizing a government that it is illegal to criticise, even in private?We aren’t told. How many crimes are there per year globally? It’s anyone’s guess, and it all depends on how you measure it.
Laughable isn’t it? This is why they say, “Lies, damned lies, and statistics”.